Saturday, 28 October 2017

IIT JAM Coaching in Lucknow - Best Study Solution

IIT JAM Coaching in Lucknow - Best Study Solution

Here is another season of IIT JAM. The IIT JAM 2018 is scheduled to be held on 11th February 2018. Students competing for IIT JAM this year must have started their preparation. So here are the most searched things to prepare IIT JAM Exam 2018 for Physics, Chemistry, Mathematic and all the other subjects catered in IIT JAM. Know what made the IIT JAM Toppers’ score best and gain merit scores!
If you aim to score high in JAM 2018 Exam, join Koshika Academy for smart Preparations! Choose amongst the content rich- comprehensively designed study courses for all JAM Subjects.
If you are looking for IIT JAM coaching to still begin with your preparation, you can give away your stress and start it now. Koshika Academy a best learning platform which gives you IIT JAM Coaching to give a kick start for all the JAM subjects.
Candidates who want to prepare for IIT JAM 2018 and are looking for IIT JAM coaching in Lucknow, here are we with the perfect solution to boost up your confidence. Koshika Academy offers a complete package for various subjects which will help you out to crack your dream exam. Koshika Academy provides simplified IIT JAM coaching not only to boost up your confidence but to top the exam. With the expert tutors, Koshika Academy brings out new techniques to compete in joint admission test 2018. Here are some benefits which are proven by IIT JAM toppers from Koshika Academy.

Monday, 23 October 2017

How to Choose a Best Coaching Institute for IIT JEE Exam.?

How to Choose a Best Coaching Institute for IIT JEE Exam.?

IIT JEE is regarded as one of the most reputed entrance exam for seeking admission in top engineering colleges. Students with a dream to clear IIT-JEE can make it a reality by starting the preparation at a very early age. There are students who start their preparation when they are at 10th standard.
As it is one of the toughest exams to crack, you should have information on the clear format of the exam, what are the subjects and topics included in the paper. Therefore, if you are really serious about the IIT JEE Exam and want to score good marks in this, then you must take IIT JEE coaching.
In IIT classes, experts will tell you about the various aspects of IIT JEE syllabus that comprise of GATE syllabus, Medical entrance exam syllabus and so on. In addition, the coaching institute will teach you how to solve different topics from various subjects including Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. Along with teaching, teachers at IIT coaching classes will ask you to solve previous year’s question paper so that you can have a clear idea on the exam pattern.
Nowadays, as most of the students take coaching for cracking competitive exams; large numbers of coaching institutes are being set up. This can lead to a major confusion which institute to choose where you can get best coaching for IIT JEE. There are certain things that should be considered while choosing the best institute. Few of them are:
Reputation of the institute: Before finalizing a coaching center, try to find out since how many years the institute has been in this service. Make sure you choose an institute that has a good reputation in the education industry.
Faculty: Always choose an institute that has a team of qualified and dedicated teachers. This is one of the most important points to consider as they are the ones who are going to provide you coaching. Have a look at their qualification and experience before you take admission. The faculties should be able to provide model test papers and assignments and help you in solving last year’s question papers.
Word of mouth: There are times when what is considered good for your friends may not be suitable for you. So, ask opinions from students who are similar to you. You will come across different options. You can choose any one of them that suits you perfectly.
Competitive environment: You should find an institution that follows a positive and encouraging attitude towards the students. Students should be encouraged to ask doubts, if any.

Considering all these points in mind will help you in choosing the Best IIT Coaching Institute for competitive exams. If you are looking for such an IIT JEE Coaching institute in Lucknow which fulfills all the above mentioned points, then you can always option for Koshika Academy. Join Us Today.!

Saturday, 21 October 2017

Crack GATE Exam in First Attempt

Crack GATE 2018 Exam in First Attempt

GATE (The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) 2018 Exam is a gateway for all aspiring & qualifying candidates to secure admission for postgraduate(P.G) programs in centrally funded Indian institutions. This year IIT Guwahati is organizing institute for GATE Exam. GATE is highly competitive entrance exam where lakhs of candidates appear for examination to crack the exam and hence it requires good tips and proper guidance for GATE preparation.

Here is a list of tips that you must go through to ace your GATE exam in the first attempt.

  • Know the Exam pattern : The GATE Exam is a single paper online examination of three hours, with 65 questions carrying a total of 100 marks. The question paper will consist of both multiple choice questions and numerical answer type questions.
  • Follow the GATE Syllabus : During your preparation, aim to complete the given syllabus rather than studying out of syllabus topics. Since there are many subjects included in the syllabus, it is important that you should make a particular study plan to prepare each and every topic of the syllabus.
  • Read standard text books : Prepare at least one standard text book for each subject in GATE syllabus. Reading one book may not cover the complete syllabus. In such a scenario you must ensure that you are not relying on these text books completely.  To avoid this, it is a good  practice to actively engage yourself through online platforms that provide resource material for your practice.
  • Understand fundamentals and Practice quizzes: Initially, focus on understanding the concepts and later focus on mastering each topic through the practice tests. For this purpose, you must aim at solving as many problems/quizzes as on regular basis and improve accuracy and performance in each test.
  • Preparation Time and Strategy : Preparation depends on many individual factors such as aptitude, fundamentals, understanding level etc., typically, a rigorous preparation from 4 to 6 months is considered well enough for getting into IISc or IITs. A topic by topic studying plan will help you understand each topic extensively, with enough practice.
  • Make short revision notes : Once you have considerably gone ahead with your preparation, you can start reading all the chapters again and prepare short notes for all important topics. These short notes can help you to recall entire preparation and useful for your last-minute revision.
  • Recall all concepts and methods : After the preparation of complete syllabus, spend one month before the exam to recall all concepts, formulas, methods and examples. Remember the definitions, important points and formulas during the revision. Always remember to get your basic concepts clear, it will help you to crack even tough questions.
  • Test your abilities : In order to maximize your chances to get a good performance score, you need to minimize the time you spend during reading, understanding and solving for each question in the exam. Many of GATE questions can be answered with reading and understanding. So final goal is to improve your time to solve each question. 

For GATE 2018 Exam preparation with latest study notes, practice tests and more, join Koshika Academy a Best GATE Coaching Institute in Lucknow. They are the oldest ones in Lucknow City and carry many years of Teaching and Industry experience.

Saturday, 7 October 2017

Csir Net Life Sciences Coaching Lucknow

Csir Net Life Sciences Coaching Lucknow

Koshika Academy Coaching Center Of Excellence has been developed as a Coaching institute providing quality and dependable guidance to the students preparing for CSIR NET JRF Life Sciences examination.
CSIR will hold the Joint CSIR-UGC Test for determining the eligibility of the Indian National candidates for the award of Junior Research Fellowships (JRF) NET and for determining eligibility for appointment of Lecturers (NET) in certain subject areas falling under the faculty of Science. The award of Junior Research Fellowship (NET) to the successful eligible candidates will depend on their finding admission/placement in a university/ national laboratory/ institution of higher learning and research, as applicable.
A candidate may apply either for ‘JRF + Lectureship’ both or for ‘Lectureship (LS) only’ He/she may indicate his/her preference in the O.M.R Application Form/Online Application, as the case may be. CSIR may consider candidates applying for ‘JRF + LS’ for ‘Lectureship only” depending on number of fellowships available & performance in the test subject to the condition that they fulfil the laid down eligibility criterion . If a candidate is found to be over-age for JRF (NET) he/she will automatically be considered for Lectureship (NET) only.
Two separate merit lists, one comprising the candidates qualifying for the award of Junior Research Fellowship (JRF - NET) and the second, of those candidates qualifying the Eligibility Test for Lectureship (NET), will be made on the basis of their performance in the above Test. Candidates qualifying for JRF (NET), will also be eligible for Lectureship (NET). The candidates qualifying for Lectureship will be eligible for recruitment as Lecturers as well as for JRF-ship in a Scheme/Project, if otherwise suitable as per the eligibility criteria of that Scheme/Project. However, they will not be eligible for Regular JRF-NET Fellowship. They will be eligible to pursue Ph.D. programme with or without any fellowship other than JRF-NET. Candidates qualifying for the award of JRF (NET) will receive fellowship either from CSIR or UGC as per their assignment or from the Schemes with which they may find association. The candidates declared eligible for Junior Research Fellowship under UGC scheme will be governed by UGC rules/regulations in this regard.


M.Sc. or Equivalent degree under the subjects, with minimum 55% marks for General & OBC candidates; 50% for SC/ST candidates, physically and visually handicapped candidates and Ph.D. degree holders who had passed Master's degree prior to 19th September 1991.
A candidate can also apply for the Test under RA (Result Awaited) category, if he/she is appearing or has appeared in his/her final year (Last Semester where Semester system is there) of M.Sc. OR equivalent Degree Examination in subjects during the ongoing academic Session. Such candidates will have to submit the attestation format (given at the reverse of the application form) duly certified by the Head of the Deptt. /Institute over his/her signature and rubber stamp (with address and name) from where the candidate is appearing or has appeared in the final year(Last Semester where Semester system is there) M.Sc. or equivalent degree examination. However, such candidates shall be admitted to the Test provisionally. They shall only be considered eligible for JRF-(NET)/LS-(NET), if they are able to produce the proof of having passed the Master’s Degree examination in the relevant or related subject with the requisite percentage of marks and within the stipulated time frame.
AGE LIMIT & RELAXATION For JRF (NET): Minimum 19 Years and maximum 28 years (upper age limit may be relaxed up to 5 years as in case of candidates belonging to SC/ST/OBC(Non Creamy Layer), Physically handicapped/Visually handicapped and female applicants).
For LS (NET): Minimum 19 years. No upper age limit.


There will be single paper MCQ test paper. The MCQ test paper shall carry a maximum of 200 marks.
Duration: The exam shall be for duration of three hours.
The question paper shall be divided in three parts
Part 'A' 
This part shall carry 20 questions pertaining to General Science, Quantitative Reasoning & Analysis and Research Aptitude. The candidates shall be required to answer any 15 questions. Each question shall be of two marks. The total marks allocated to this section shall be 30 out of 200.
Part 'B'
This part shall contain 50 Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs) generally covering the topics given in the syllabus. A candidate shall be required to answer any 35 questions. Each question shall be of two marks. The total marks allocated to this section shall be 70 out of 200.
Part 'C' 
This part shall contain 75 questions that are designed to test a candidate's knowledge of scientific concepts and/or application of the scientific concepts. The questions shall be of analytical nature where a candidate is expected to apply the scientific knowledge to arrive at the solution to the given scientific problem. A candidate shall be required to answer any 25 questions. Each question shall be of four marks. The total marks allocated to this section shall be 100 out of 200.
A negative marking for wrong answers, wherever required, shall be @ 25% 

Why To Appear in CSIR NET Examination:-
After qualifying for JRF you become eligible for registration for Ph.D and will be paid a stipend of Rs.12,000 to 14,000 per month + HRA.
In today’s competitive world if you want to pursue your dream of becoming a scientist, Ph.D degree is essential. For obtaining Ph.D degree from a reputed institute JRF certainly helps.
If you qualify Only LS than also you become eligible for being appointed as a lecturer. This certificate is valid throughout the life.

  1. Molecules and their interaction relevant to biology
  2. Cellular organization
  3. Fundamental processes
  4. Cell communication and cell signaling
  5. Developmental biology
  6. System physiology – plant
  7. System physiology – animal
  8. Inheritance biology
  9. Diversity of life forms
  10. Ecological principles
  11. Evolution and behaviour
  12. Applied biology:
  13. Methods in biology


A. Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds.
B. Composition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins).
C. Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.).
D. Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties).
E. Bioenergetics, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group transfer, biological energy transducers.
F. Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes.
G. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure; domains; motif and folds).
H. Conformation of nucleic acids (A-, B-, Z-,DNA), t-RNA, micro-RNA).
I. Stability of protein and nucleic acid structures.
J. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and vitamins.


A. Membrane structure and function: Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, ion pumps, mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of membranes.
B. Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles: Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility.
C. Organization of genes and chromosomes: Operon, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, unique and repetitive DNA, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons.
D. Cell division and cell cycle: Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, and control of cell cycle.
E. Microbial Physiology: Growth, yield and characteristics, strategies of cell division, stress response.


A. DNA replication, repair and recombination: Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms.
B. RNA synthesis and processing: Transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activators and repressors, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport.
C. Protein synthesis and processing: Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, post- translational modification of proteins.
D. Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level: Regulation of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, role of chromatin in regulating gene expression and gene silencing.


A. Host parasite interaction: Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens like bacteria, viruses into animal and plant host cells, alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens, virus-induced cell transformation, pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants, cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells.
B. Cell signaling: Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component signaling systems, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.
C. Cellular communication: Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.
D. Cancer: Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of
E. Innate and adaptive immune system: Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules, generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis), parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccines.


A. Basic concepts of development: Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants; imprinting; mutants and transgenics in analysis of development.
B. Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development: Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals; embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants; zygote formation, cleavage, blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals; embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants; seed formation and germination.
C. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals: Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium; axes and pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick; organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans; eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates; differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development-larval formation, metamorphosis; environmental regulation of normal development; sex determination.
D. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem; shoot and root development; leaf development and phyllotaxy; transition to flowering, floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum.
E. Programmed cell death, aging and senescence.


A. Photosynthesis: Light harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport; photoprotective mechanisms; CO2 fixation-C3, C4 and CAM pathways.
B. Respiration and photorespiration: Citric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photorespiratory pathway.
C. Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid biosynthesis.
D. Plant hormones: Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action.
E. Sensory photobiology: Structure, function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks.
F. Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation: Uptake, transport and translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates.
G. Secondary metabolites - Biosynthesis of terpenes, phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles.
H. Stress physiology: Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water, temperature and salt) stresses; mechanisms of resistance to biotic stress and tolerance to abiotic stress


A. Blood and circulation: Blood corpuscles, haemopoiesis and formed elements, plasma function, blood volume, blood volume regulation, blood groups, haemoglobin, immunity, haemostasis.
B. Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic heart, specialized tissue, ECG – its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation of all above.
C. Respiratory system: Comparison of respiration in different species, anatomical considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of respiration.
D. Nervous system: Neurons, action potential, gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, neural control of muscle tone and posture.
E. Sense organs: Vision, hearing and tactile response.
F. Excretory system: Comparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of water balance, blood volume, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance.
G. Thermoregulation: Comfort zone, body temperature – physical, chemical, neural regulation, acclimatization.
H. Stress and adaptation
I. Digestive system: Digestion, absorption, energy balance, BMR.
J.Endocrinology and reproduction: Endocrine glands, basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases; reproductive processes, neuroendocrine regulation.


A. Mendelian principles: Dominance, segregation, independent assortment, deviation from Mendelian inheritance.
B. Concept of gene: Allele, multiple alleles, pseudoallele, complementation tests.
C. Extensions of Mendelian principles: Codominance, incomplete dominance, gene interactions, pleiotropy, genomic imprinting, penetrance and expressivity, phenocopy, linkage and crossing over, sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced characters.
D. Gene mapping methods: Linkage maps, tetrad analysis, mapping with molecular markers, mapping by using somatic cell hybrids, development of mapping population in plants.
E. Extra chromosomal inheritance: Inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes, maternal inheritance.
F. Microbial genetics: Methods of genetic transfers – transformation, conjugation, transduction and sex-duction, mapping genes by interrupted mating, fine structure analysis of genes.
G. Human genetics: Pedigree analysis, lod score for linkage testing, karyotypes, genetic disorders
H. Quantitative genetics: Polygenic inheritance, heritability and its measurements, QTL mapping.
I. Mutation: Types, causes and detection, mutant types – lethal, conditional, biochemical, loss of function, gain of function, germinal verses somatic mutants, insertional mutagenesis.
J. Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes: Deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation, ploidy and their genetic implications.
K. Recombination: Homologous and non-homologous recombination, including transposition, site-specific recombination.


A. Principles and methods of taxonomy:Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa, biological nomenclature, classical and quantititative methods of taxonomy of plants, animals and microorganisms.
B. Levels of structural organization: Unicellular, colonial and multicellular forms; levels of organization of tissues, organs and systems; comparative anatomy.
C. Outline classification of plants, animals and microorganisms:Important criteria used for classification in each taxon; classification of plants, animals and microorganisms; evolutionary relationships among taxa.
D. Natural history of Indian subcontinent: Major habitat types of the subcontinent, geographic origins and migrations of species; common Indian mammals, birds; seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent.
E. Organisms of health and agricultural importance: Common parasites and pathogens of humans, domestic animals and crops.


A. The Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions.
B. Habitat and niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.
C. Population ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations.
D. Species interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis.
E. Community ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.
F. Ecological succession: Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax.
G. Ecosystem: Structure and function; energy flow and mineral cycling (CNP); primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine, eustarine).
H. Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of India.
I. Applied ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change; biodiversity-status, monitoring and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity change; biodiversity management approaches.
J. Conservation biology: Principles of conservation, major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves).


A. Emergence of evolutionary thoughts: Lamarck; Darwin–concepts of variation, adaptation, struggle, fitness and natural selection; Mendelism; spontaneity of mutations; the evolutionary synthesis.
B. Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules; abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers; concept of Oparin and Haldane; experiment of Miller (1953); the first cell; evolution of prokaryotes; origin of eukaryotic cells; evolution of unicellular eukaryotes; anaerobic metabolism, photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism.
C. Paleontology and evolutionary history: The evolutionary time scale; eras, periods and epoch; major events in the evolutionary time scale; origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms; major groups of plants and animals; stages in primate evolution including Homo.
D. Molecular Evolution: Concepts of neutral evolution, molecular divergence and molecular clocks; molecular tools in phylogeny, classification and identification; protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; gene duplication and divergence.
E. The Mechanisms: Population genetics – populations, gene pool, gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration and random genetic drift; adaptive radiation and modifications; isolating mechanisms; speciation; allopatricity and sympatricity; convergent evolution; sexual selection; co-evolution.
F. Brain, Behavior and Evolution: Approaches and methods in study of behavior; proximate and ultimate causation; altruism and evolution-group selection, kin selection, reciprocal altruism; neural basis of learning, memory, cognition, sleep and arousal; biological clocks; development of behavior; social communication; social dominance; use of space and territoriality; mating systems, parental investment and reproductive success; parental care; aggressive behavior; habitat selection and optimality in foraging; migration, orientation and navigation; domestication and behavioral changes.


A. Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules.
B. Application of immunological principles (vaccines, diagnostics). tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals.
C. Transgenic animals and plants, molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification.
D. Genomics and its application to health and agriculture, including gene therapy.
E. Bioresource and uses of biodiversity.
F. Breeding in plants and animals, including marker – assisted selection.
G. Bioremediation and phytoremediation.
H. Biosensors.


A. Molecular biology and recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods; analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing gels; molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems; expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors; isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences; generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors; in vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms; protein sequencing methods, detection of post-translation modification of proteins; DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing; methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression analysis, such as micro array based techniques; isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules; RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques
B. Histochemical and immunotechniques: Antibody generation, detection of molecules using ELISA, RIA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, floweytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, detection of molecules in living cells, in situ localization by techniques such as FISH and GISH.
C. Biophysical methods: Analysis of biomolecules using UV/visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR; analysis using light scattering, different types of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods.
D. Statistical Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal; probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson and normal); sampling distribution; difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics; confidence interval; errors; levels of significance; regression and correlation; t- test; analysis of variance; X2 test;; basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics, etc.
E. Radiolabeling techniques: Properties of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology, their detection and measurement; incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells, molecular imaging of radioactive material, safety guidelines.
F. Microscopic techniques: Visulization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy, resolving powers of different microscopes, microscopy of living cells, scanning and transmission microscopes, different fixation and staining techniques for EM, freeze-etch and freeze-fracture methods for EM, image processing methods in microscopy.
G. Electrophysiological methods: Single neuron recording, patch-clamp recording, ECG, Brain activity recording, lesion and stimulation of brain, pharmacological testing, PET, MRI, fMRI, CAT .
H. Methods in field biology: Methods of estimating population density of animals and plants, ranging patterns through direct, indirect and remote observations, sampling methods in the study of behavior, habitat characterization-ground and remote sensing methods.
I. Computational methods: Nucleic acid and protein sequence databases; data mining methods for sequence analysis, web-based tools for sequence searches, motif analysis and presentation

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